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Waist & Neck Hernia

The protrusion of an organ or structure in the body beyond the anatomical region that should be found under normal conditions is called hernia in the medical language.

Brain Tumors

Since brain tumors are space-occupying formations in the skull, they cause increased intracranial pressure syndrome (CIBAS).

Nerve entrapment

In some cases, the nerves going to the hand and foot muscles are compressed as they pass through thin channels and nerve compression may occur.

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Spinal Canal Stenosis

Spinal canal stenosis (Spinal Stenosis); It is caused by the degeneration of the tissues surrounding the spinal cord over time, the expansion of the facet joints and the pressure towards the canal, the narrowing of the canal through which the spinal cord passes as a result of calcification and thickening of the ligaments lining the canal. This may occur after heavy workload, excess weight, sedentary lifestyle or trauma, or it may also cause underlying congenital canal stenosis.


Spinal canal stenosis can be seen in the neck (cervical stenosis) or lumbar (lumbar stenosis) region, and its symptoms are related to the region. Unlike hernia, the onset of complaints is not sudden, it shows a slow and progressive course. In the most common lumbar stenosis, patients' walking distance begins to shorten day by day due to severe pain (neurogenic claudication) and numbness spreading to both legs. 


In the early stages of the disease, follow-up with medical treatments, physical exercises and weight control is recommended. In advanced stage patients, surgical interventions to widen the canal are required.

Spine and Spinal Cord Tumors

Spinal cord,They are tumors that originate from the membranes surrounding the spinal cord, soft tissue, spine or neighboring tissues and cause compression on the nerve tissue. These tumors can be benign or malignant in general. In addition, they are classified in three groups as settlements, these are;

  1. Extradural tumors

  2. Intradural extramedullary tumors

  3. Intradural intramedullary tumors

They cause neurological symptoms due to the pressure effect they make. These symptoms vary depending on the tissue from which the tumor originates, the segment in which it is located and the pressure it exerts. Symptoms such as local pain, tenderness, burning sensation on the spine. There may be symptoms such as pain in the arms or legs, numbness, tingling, loss of strength, loss of sensation, balance disorders, urinary or stool incontinence.

After a detailed neurological examination, the diagnosis is made with the appropriate imaging (Graphics, MR, CT, Scintigraphy) methods. 

The main goal of treatment is to eliminate the pressure and completely remove the tumor. The surgeries performed using today's technological opportunities show very successful results.

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Waist & Neck Hernia


It is a connective tissue that connects the vertebrae and acts as a cushion between the vertebrae.  Disks consist of a solid outer layer (anulus  fibrosus) and a softer gel-like layer (anulus pulposus) in the middle. As the age progresses, the liquid content of the middle gel layer decreases and therefore its function decreases.  As a result of a weakening or tear in the outer layer, the outer layer of the inner layer overflows is called Disc Herniation (Hernia).

These degenerations in the discs cause neck or low back pain depending on the level of the vertebra. In addition, due to the nerves pressed by the herniated part, it causes complaints such as pain, numbness, burning and tingling in the areas where these nerves extend.  Complaints caused by this compression effect spread to the arms and hands in neck hernias and to the legs and feet in lumbar hernias.

As the size of the herniated part and the pressure increase, the force may cause pathologies ranging from decreased strength in the muscles innervated by the relevant nerve to paralysis.

Diagnosis and Treatment;

After a detailed anamnesis of the onset, severity, and distribution of the pain, and the level of hernia and the degree of its effect on the physical examination to be performed, the appropriate  imaging methods (MR, CT, X-ray, EMG) according to the suspected area diagnosis is clarified. In 80-90% of sudden hernias, patients recover with exercise or physical therapy after drug treatments.  Patients who cannot improve with medical treatment or who have complaints such as loss of strength, loss of sensation, and urinary incontinence require surgery. The surgical method to be chosen should be chosen according to the patient's age, weight, daily activities and the size of the hernia.

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Brain Tumors

Brain tumors:Because the adult skull is limited by bone structure, its volume is constant. For this reason, even if the tumors growing inside the skull are benign, they can have life-threatening consequences due to the pressure they put on the brain.  

Brain tumors; They cause symptoms of CRPS consisting of severe headache, nausea-vomiting, visual disturbances and changes in consciousness. They also show symptoms specific to the brain region they cause pressure. These symptoms are; There may be loss of strength on one side of the body, sensory loss such as vision-hearing-taste and smell, speech disorders, balance defects, memory loss or seizures.


Brain tumors occur as a result of the spread (metastasis) of the brain's own cells or the tumor that has formed elsewhere in the body.

Brain tumors can be benign or malignant. The important difference of brain tumors from other tumors is that the brain, which is protected by the skull, can increase intracranial pressure and threaten life with the growth of a benign or malignant tumor. Therefore, it should be noted that even a benign brain tumor can threaten the patient's life if it is not controlled.

Brain Bleeding

Brain hemorrhages;It can develop traumatically or spontaneously.

traumatic hemorrhages; between the brain membrane (dura mater) and the skull (epidural hemorrhage),  may occur between the meninges and the brain (subdural hemorrhage or inside the brain tissue (intraparenchymal hemorrhage).


The vast majority of spontaneous hemorrhages occur as a result of bursting of bubbles in the brain vessels (cerebral aneurysm) (subarachnoid hemorrhage-SAH). Sometimes, bleeding from the brain vessels due to high blood pressure (intraparenchymal hemorrhage) may occur even without aneurysm. Less frequently, bleeding may occur within brain tumors.

Symptoms;Brain hemorrhages generally cause symptoms of CIBAS (Intracranial Pressure Increased Syndrome) due to their space-occupying effects in the skull. KIBAS symptoms can be summarized as headache, changes in consciousness, nausea-vomiting. In addition, they may cause symptoms specific to the area of bleeding (such as vision, hearing, balance, speech, smell, and movement disorders).

Diagnosis; First of all, detailed neurological examination and then imaging such as tomography, MRI, angiography can be used according to the need.

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Nerve entrapment

Nerve entrapment:They travel a long way along the way the nerves leave the spinal cord until they reach the target muscle tissue. Conditions that cause pressure on the nerve along this path cause nerve compression. Depending on the degree of this pressure along the pinched nerve, symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, loss of strength in the target muscle and  muscle wasting occur. 

Nerves get stuck in some special grooves they pass through, so these diseases TUNNEL SYNDROMESIt is named  . These grooves occur in joint areas such as wrists, elbows, and knees. As a result of excessive and forced use of the joint, the connective tissue and bones forming the groove around the nerve thicken as a result, the groove narrows and the nerve is compressed. Underlying diabetes and rheumatic diseases accelerate and accelerate this process.

Detailed neurological examination for diagnosis in tunnel syndromes andEMGmakes. According to the degree of compression, as a treatment; splints,physiotheraphyorsurgicalapplicable.


Common Nerve Compression;

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: It is the most common type of nerve compression (about 90%). It occurs when the median nerve is compressed within the carpal tunnel of the wrist. It is the thickening of the carpal ligament that narrows the tunnel.  Symptoms are numbness, tingling and difficulty in fine movements, especially in the first 3 fingers. Hand numbness, loss of strength in the fingers and muscle wasting can be seen in advanced cases (tennar-hypotennar atrophy).     

Congenital (Congenital) Anomalies

central nervous system emeriologyDuring development, it develops earlier and faster compared to other parts of the body. The anatomical and physiological problems that occur during this rapid embryological development are called congenital anomalies. ThiscongenitalWhile some of the anomalies are incompatible with life, postnatal treatment of some of them is possible. The main of these anomalies are:

  • anencephaly

  • Encephalocele

  • Microcephaly

  • Macrocephaly

  • hydrocephalus

  • Arnold Chiari Malformation

  • Dandy Walker syndrome

  • dermal sinus tract

  • Diastometamyelia

  • Tethered cord syndrome

  • Spinal Dystraphisms

  • meningocele

  • Meningomyelocele

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